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Johann Lindner, 1893, Kandern, Germany, 1893

Single train, cast iron plate and spacer frame design. Graham deadbeat escapement. One second wooden rod pendulum. Bolt and shutter type maintaining power. Movement equipped with 30 second differential type gravity remontoire. Single day duration, i.e. movement has three verses the conventional four wheel eight day style. But could be made to run eight days in a conventional tower clock setting with additional compounding of the weight through pulleys.   13 1/2"w x 21 3/4"h x 12"d.

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The smaller tower clocks, particularly from Germany, often had only three wheeled trains. This configuration offered a cheaper design, not just from the elimination of one wheel, but the general avoidance of greater precision in the overall fabrication of the movement that accompanies the addition of a wheel. Each wheel adds greatly to the power needed from the bottom of the train, the drive barrel or spring in a conventional domestic clock, to drive the top of the train - the escapement. All things being equal this power requirement can increase by a factor of ten for each wheel. Therefor, minimizing friction becomes paramount and here enters the fabrication costs. Theoretically one could add five or six wheels to the train to get a month or even a full year, but the practicalities of doing this outweigh the advantages. However, year going domestic tall case and other clocks are known, but rare and expensive for these reasons.

This example is from an obscure German maker. The outstanding feature on this clock is the maker's use of an extensively skeletonized and nicely executed curvilinear frame cutouts with scallop and spur outlines. It always fascinates me the extent that some tower clock makers went through to make their movements look attractive. This only adds to the cost with no possible improvement in the clock's performance. Obviously the reason is to impress the buyer, but to think that after this initial appraisal from the owner is finished, the magnificently made machine is nearly always and forever thereafter unavailable to be seen by anyone other than the clock's maintenance personnel. For other outstanding examples of this practice see, the German makers Ritzert, Schweppenhäser. French makers Cretin, Gugumus. Czech maker, Hainz and US maker Howard.

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